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Mal:About Mal:Infobox haplogroup

Haplogruppe T is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogruppe. Det er antatt at den oppstod omtrent for 25100 år sidan i Midt_Østen. Mal:TOC limit

Opprinnelse

Mitokondriell undergruppe T stammer fra haplogruppen JT, som er felles for T og mtDNA haplogroup J. The T maternal clade is thought to have emanated from the Near East Mal:Harv.

Distribution

Fil:Frequency maps based on HVS-I data for haplogroups T.png
Projected spatial frequency distribution for haplogroup T.

The basal haplogroup T* is found among Algerians in Oran (1.67%) and Reguibate Sahrawi (0.93%).[1] It is also distributed among the Soqotri (1.2%).[2]

Haplogroup T is present at low frequencies haplogroup throughout Western and Central Asia and Europe, with varying degrees of prevalence and certainly might have been present in other groups from the surrounding areas. T is found in approximately 10% of native Europeans.[3][4] It is also common among modern day Iranians. Based on a sample of over 400 modern day Iranians Mal:Harv, the T haplogroup represents roughly 8.3% of the population (about 1 out of 12 individuals), with the more specific T1 subtype constituting roughly half of those. Furthermore, the specific subtype T1 tends to be found further east and is common in Central Asian and modern Turkic populations Mal:Harv, who inhabit much of the same territory as the ancient Saka, Sarmatian, Andronovo, and other putative Iranian peoples of the 2nd and 1st millennia BC. Lalueza-Fox et al. (2004) also found several T and T1 sequences in ancient burials, including Kurgans, in the Kazakh steppe between the 14th-10th centuries BC, as well as later into the 1st millennia BC. These coincide with the latter part of the Andronovo period and the Saka period in the region.[5]

Haplogroup T is currently found with high concentrations around the eastern Baltic Sea.

The geographic distribution within subclade T2 varies greatly with the ratio of subhaplogroup T2e to T2b reported to vary 40-fold across examined populations from a low in Britain and Ireland, to a high in Saudi Arabia Mal:Harv. Within subhaplogroup T2e, a very rare motif is identified among Sephardic Jews of Turkey and Bulgaria and suspected conversos from the New World Mal:Harv.

Found in Svan population from Caucasus (Georgia) T* 10,4% and T1 4,2%. T1a1a1 is particularly common in countries with high levels of Y-haplogroup R1a, such as Central and Northeast Europe. The clade is also found everywhere in Central Asia and deep into North Asia, as far east as Mongolia.

T2c and T2d appear to have a Near Eastern origin around the time of the Last Glacial Maximum and more recent dispersals into Europe. Most of T2c comprises haplogroup T2c1. Apart from a peak in Cyprus, T2c1 is most common in the Gulf region but is also found in the Levant and in Mediterranean Europe, with a more far-flung distribution at very low levels.[6]

T2 is also found among the Soqotri (7.7%).[2]

Archaeology

Wilde et al. (2014) tested mtDNA samples from the Yamna culture, the presumed homeland of Proto-Indo-European speakers. They found T2a1b in the Middle Volga region and Bulgaria, and T1a both in central Ukraine and the Middle Volga. The frequency of T1a and T2 in Yamna samples were each 14.5%, a percentage higher than in any country today and only found in similarly high frequencies among the Udmurts of the Volga-Ural region.[7]

Haplogroup T has also been found among Iberomaurusian specimens dating from the Epipaleolithic at the Afalou prehistoric site in Algeria. One ancient individual carried the T2b subclade (1/9; 11%).[8] Additionally, haplogroup T has been observed among ancient Egyptian mummies excavated at the Abusir el-Meleq archaeological site in Middle Egypt, which date from the Pre-Ptolemaic/late New Kingdom (T1, T2), Ptolemaic (T1, T2), and Roman (undifferentiated T, T1) periods.[9] Fossils excavated at the Late Neolithic site of Kelif el Boroud in Morocco, which have been dated to around 3,000 BCE, have also been observed to carry the T2 subclade.[10] Additionally, haplogroup T has been observed in ancient Guanche fossils excavated in Gran Canaria and Tenerife on the Canary Islands, which have been radiocarbon-dated to between the 7th and 11th centuries CE. The clade-bearing individuals were inhumed at the Tenerife site, with one specimen found to belong to the T2c1d2 subclade (1/7; 14%).[11]

Africa

In Africa, haplogroup T is primarily found among Afro-Asiatic-speaking populations, including the basal T* clade.[1] Some non-basal T clades are also commonly found among the Niger-Congo-speaking Serer due to diffusion from the Maghreb, likely with the spread of Islam and urban civilizations.[12]

Population Location Language Family N Frequency Source
Amhara Ethiopia Afro-Asiatic > Semitic 5/120 4.17% Mal:Harvnb
Beja Sudan Afro-Asiatic > Cushitic 1/48 2.1% Mal:Harvnb
Beta Israel Ethiopia Afro-Asiatic > Cushitic 0/29 0.00% Mal:Harvnb
Copt Egypt Afro-Asiatic > Egyptian 5/29 17.2% Mal:Harvnb
Dawro K. Ethiopia Afro-Asiatic > Omotic 2/137 1.46% Mal:Harvnb and Mal:Harvnb
Egyptians (El-Hayez) Egypt Afro-Asiatic > Semitic 10/35 28.6% Mal:Harvnb
Ethiopia Ethiopia Undetermined 2/77 2.60% Mal:Harvnb
Ethiopian Jew Ethiopia Afro-Asiatic > Cushitic 0/41 0.00% Mal:Harvnb
Gurage Ethiopia Afro-Asiatic > Semitic 0/21 0.00% Mal:Harvnb
Hamer Ethiopia Afro-Asiatic > Omotic 0/11 0.00% Mal:Harvnb and Mal:Harvnb
Ongota Ethiopia Afro-Asiatic > Cushitic 0/19 0.00% Mal:Harvnb and Mal:Harvnb
Oromo Ethiopia Afro-Asiatic > Cushitic 0/33 0.00% Mal:Harvnb
Tigrai Ethiopia Afro-Asiatic > Semitic 3/44 6.82% Mal:Harvnb
Daasanach Kenya Afro-Asiatic > Cushitic 0/49 0.00% Mal:Harvnb
Elmolo Kenya Afro-Asiatic > Cushitic 0/52 0.00% Mal:Harvnb and Mal:Harvnb
Luo Kenya Nilo-Saharan 0/49 0.00% Mal:Harvnb and Mal:Harvnb
Maasai Kenya Nilo-Saharan 0/81 0.00% Mal:Harvnb and Mal:Harvnb
Nairobi Kenya Niger-Congo 0/100 0.00% Mal:Harvnb
Nyangatom Kenya Nilo-Saharan 0/112 0.00% Mal:Harvnb
Rendille Kenya Afro-Asiatic > Cushitic 0/17 0.00% Mal:Harvnb and Mal:Harvnb
Samburu Kenya Nilo-Saharan 0/35 0.00% Mal:Harvnb and Mal:Harvnb
Turkana Kenya Nilo-Saharan 0/51 0.00% Mal:Harvnb and Mal:Harvnb
Hutu Rwanda Niger-Congo 0/42 0.00% Mal:Harvnb
Dinka Sudan Nilo-Saharan 0/46 0.00% Mal:Harvnb
Sudan Sudan Undetermined 3/102 2.94% Mal:Harvnb
Burunge Tanzania Afro-Asiatic > Cushitic 0/38 0.00% Mal:Harvnb
Datoga Tanzania Nilo-Saharan 1/57 1.75% Mal:Harvnb and Mal:Harvnb
Iraqw Tanzania Afro-Asiatic > Cushitic 0/12 0.00% Mal:Harvnb
Sukuma Tanzania Niger-Congo 0/32 0.00% Mal:Harvnb and Mal:Harvnb
Turu Tanzania Niger-Congo 0/29 0.00% Mal:Harvnb
Yemeni Yemen Afro-Asiatic > Semitic 1/114 0.88% Mal:Harvnb

Asia

Europe

Subclades

Fil:Schematic tree of mtDNA haplogroup T.png
Schematic tree of mtDNA haplogroup T. Ages (in ka) indicated are maximum likelihood estimates obtained for the whole-mtDNA genome.

Tree

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup I subclades is based on the paper Mal:Harv and subsequent published research Mal:Harv. For brevity, only the first three levels of subclades (branches) are shown.

  • T
    • T1
      • T1a
        • T1a1
      • T1b
    • T2
      • T2a
        • T2a1
      • T2b
        • T2b1
        • T2b2
        • T2b3
        • T2b4
        • T2b5
        • T2b6
      • T2c
        • T2c1
      • T2d
      • T2e
        • T2e2
      • T2f
        • T2f1
      • T2g

Health Issues

One study has shown Haplogroup T to be associated with increased risk for coronary artery disease Mal:Harv. However, some studies have also shown that people of Haplogroup T are less prone to diabetes (Mal:Harvnb and Mal:Harvnb).

A few tentative medical studies have demonstrated that Haplogroup T may offer some resistance to both Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.[Footnote 1]

One study has found that among the Spanish population, Hypertrophic CardioMyopathy (HCM) also referred to as Hypertrophic Obstructive CardioMyopathy or HOCM is more likely to happen in those of T2 ancestry than those in other maternal haplogroups.[13] It is unknown whether or not this is specific to this subclaude of haplogroup T or is a risk factor shared by all of haplogroup T. With a statistically significant difference found in such a small sample, it may be advisable for those of known haplogroup T maternal ancestry to be aware of this and have their physician check for evidence of this condition whan having a routine exam at an early age. It is usually symptom-less and increases the risk of sudden cardiac death, which often happens to those of as early in life as teenagers and may affect those who are active and have no other risk factors.[14]

Certain medical studies had shown mitochondrial Haplogroup T to be associated with reduced sperm motility in males, although these results have been challenged Mal:Harv. According to the Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologica Molecular y Celular, Universidad de Zaragoza, Haplogroup T can predispose to asthenozoospermia Mal:Harv. However, these findings have been disputed due to a small sample size in the study Mal:Harv.

Famous Members

During the BBC One documentary Meet the Izzards the actor and comedian Eddie Izzard learns that his mitochondrial DNA is of Haplogroup T, specifically the subclade T2f1a1.[15]

Nicholas II of Russia

The last Russian Tsar, Nicholas II, has been shown to be of Haplogroup T, specifically subclade T2 Mal:Harv. Assuming all relevant pedigrees are correct, this includes all female-line descendants of his female line ancestor Barbara of Celje (1390-1451), wife of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor. This includes a great number of European nobles, including George I of Great Britain and Frederick William I of Prussia (through the Electress Sophia of Hanover), Charles I of England, George III of the United Kingdom, George V of the United Kingdom, Charles X Gustav of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, Olav V of Norway, and George I of Greece. Many European royals have been found to be of this mtDNA Haplogroup, in addition to Haplogroup H (mtDNA).Mal:Citation needed

See also

Mal:Commons category

Genetics

Mal:Columns-list

Backbone mtDNA Tree

Mal:MtDNA

References

Footnotes

Mal:Reflist

Citations


Websites

Further reading

External links


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