Sanctus Brynolphus

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by Alf Härdelin

Sanctus Brynoplhus The canonization process contains a summary vita in the form of 20 articles on Brynolf’s life, compiled as a basis for the interrogation in partibus. It’s too meagre for a separate treatment but is included below. It was however used for the legend of the office Brinolphi patris merita, which is treated by Alf Härdelin, and was translated into Swedish (see below). A comparison of the Vita articles and the legend has been made by ÖBERG 2004.


Contents

Acts from canonization process with summary vita and miracles.

Vita beati Brynolphi episcopi Scarensis cum processu eius canonizacionis (BHL 1477.)

Essentials

Acts from the canonization process of Brynolf Algotsson (Brynolphus Algoti), bishop of Skara 1278 – 1317, including 20 articles on his life, 25 articles on his miracles after death, minutes of witness hearings, dated Vadstena April 28, 1417, consiliar and papal bulls with appointment of commission for the inquiry, the final one dated Konstanz May 7, 1418.

Brynolf was born in the 1240s into the most distinguished family of western Sweden. His father became chief justice (lagman) of the province Västergötland 1270, one of his brothers Royal Chancellor. Brynolf studied in Paris for several years and as bishop became a prominent church leader with notable achievements within canon law, church administration and property management and as the supposed author of several rhymed offices. He died February 6, 1317. A century later, following a petition from the Nordic bishops and the king for his canonization, witness hearings were held at Skara and Vadstena in April 1417. The proceedings were printed in Lübeck, probably in connection with his translation in 1492. This is the only printed canonization process from medieval Sweden.

Title

Title of original print: “Vita beati Brynolphi condam episcopi Scarensis in regno Svecie una cum miraculis et attestationibus pro eiusdem canonizatione factis” (Life of blessed Brynolphus, once bishop of Skara in the kingdom of Sweden, with the miracles and testimonies made for his canonization) is formally correct but may be misleading as the Vita comprises only a minor part. Title of the edition VITA 1876: Vita Sancti Brynolphi episcopi Scarensis cum processu eius canonizacionis, and the BHL entry Vita cum processu canonizacionis are abbreviations of the same.

Incipit

[Heading:] Incipit Vita beati Brynolphi condam episcopi Scarensis in regno Svecie una cum miraculis et attestationibus pro eiusdem canonizatione factis. [Letter of Nordic bishop’s commission:] Sacrosancte et generali Constantiensi Sinodo Vel sanctissimo in Christo patri ac domino suo gratiosissimo … [Council bull:] Sacrosancta et generalis Sinodus Constaciensis , venerabilibus fratribus Asloensi, Aboensi et Wexoniensi Episcopis, salutem et dei omnipotentis benedictionem… [Introduction to vita articles:] In negotio canonisazionis beati Brynolphi quondam Episcopi Scarensis procuratores et promotores predicti dant, faciunt et exhibent positiones et articulos infrascriptos.

Explicit

[report proper:] … Acta sunt in hoc anno, indictione, diebus, mense et locis quibus supra, data vero Wastenis sub predicto anno a natiuitate domini millesimo quadringentesimo decimo septimo, die XXVIII mensis Aprilis supradicti. [notarial subscriptions:] … de eorum mandato speciali me subscribendo signaui, rogatus et requisitus in fidem et testimonium omnium et singulorum premissorum. [papal bull:] … vt ex intimatione ipsa super hiis vberiori nobis, vel eidem successori certitudine reddita consultius fieri queant singula laude et rependiis supernaque catherua iugiter extollenda. Datum Constanciensi Monasterio [Nonis] Maii. Pontificatus nostri anno primo. Thelos huius opusculi.

Size

132 incunabula pages (each ca 1700 characters when abbreviations are resolved). 49 pages in the 1876 edition (each ca 5200 characters). 111 pages in the Swedish translation.

Edition(s)

Complete: VITA 1492 VITA 1870 VITA 1876 Partial (consiliar and papal bulls): MANSI 27:871-873, 28:932-936

Translations

  • BLOMGREN 1998 (Swedish, complete)
  • BÄÄRNHIELM 1994 (Swedish, miracles)
  • LUNDÉN 1946:1 (Swedish, miracles)

Commentaries

  • BISKOPEN OCH TÖRNTAGGEN 2004 passim
  • BÄÄRNHIELM 1994
  • COLLIJN 1934-38, p. 113-117
  • FRÖJMARK 1995
  • KLEMMING in VITA 1870
  • KRÖTZL 1994, P. 89-91, 191, 195.


Date and place

The first instance of veneration for bishop Brynolf is attributed to St Birgitta, who visited Skara February 2, 1349 and recommended the elevation of his remains (BIRGITTA Rev. 2:3, Extrav. 108, date according to Steffen, FRÖJMARK 1995:139-142, 2004:92, 95). Initiator of the canonization process was probably bishop Brynolf II Karlsson, who started the documentation of miracles by sending out clerics into his diocese soon after his accession to the see in 1404 (FRÖJMARK 1995:143, 2004:98 ). Evidence for this miracle-collecting is given frequently in the proceedings. He also performed the actual elevation in July 1414 (Fröjmark 1995:144, 2004:99 [mistakenly saying June; it was around St Margaret’s day which is in July], PERNLER 2004:71) and probably compiled the basic facts of the bishop’s life (FRÖJMARK 1995:142, 2004:96). The same year 1414, March 20-21, petitions were issued by the archbishops of Uppsala, Lund and Nidaros and by three Swedish bishops, who were then gathered in Vadstena, for the canonization of three Swedish saints, Brynolf, Nils Hermansson bishop of Linköping and Ingrid of the Dominican nunnery at Skänninge. They were supplemented, April 1, 1414, by a petition from the union king Erik (of Pomerania), who appointed a Norwegian abbot as his proctor in the case, so this was a common Nordic project. The petitions were adressed to the schizmatic pope Johannes XXIII, but arrived at the council of Konstanz, which opened in November 1414 (LOSMAN 1970:18, 27).

The council appointed a commission of eight cardinals and theologians including Jean Gerson, who made himself known as a sharp critic of the visions of S. Birgitta and others (LOSMAN 1970:36). The bishops of Oslo, Åbo and Växjö were commissioned, in a bull of April 27, 1416, to conduct the hearings in partibus (Fröjmark 195:138, 2004:91). These were held in Skara and Vadstena in April 1417 on the basis of 20 articles on Brynolf’s life and 25 on his miracles after death, probably compiled by the procurator, the abbott Sten from Munkaliv in Norway. The proceedings were dated Vadstena April 28, 1417. The hearings for Nils Hermansson and Ingrid were held in May and in the summer the same year. No final report has been preserved. The last document is the confirmation of the commission by pope Martin V, May 7, 1418. (LOSMAN 1970:28). No trace of this process is preserved thereafter, until the proceedings were printed in Lübeck in the 1490s.


Summary of contents

1. Report to the council of Konstanz.

The text opens with a report to the council of Konstanz by the three bishops, Jacobus of Oslo, Magnus of Åbo and Eskillus of Växjö, who had been commissioned to conduct the investigation in partibus, and now acknowledge the reception of the council bull by the hands of abbott Sten Stenarsson from Munkaliv, Norway, king Erik’s procurator. [VITA 1876:138-139].


2. The council bull with the commission to the three bishops.

Dated Konstanz April 27, 1416. [VITA 1876:139-141].


3. 20 articles on Brynolf’s life [VITA 1876:141-143].
  • 1. He was born of noble parents devoted to God, who founded a church at Ryda and provided her with financial means.
  • 2. He devoted himself to prayers and studies, staying 18 years in Paris.
  • 3. He became canon at Skara, then dean at Linköping, became famous for sanctity of life, honesty of manners and praiseworthy conduct, finally was unanimously elected bishop of Skara and presided there for 38 years, laudably carrying the burden of this regiment.
  • 4. From the fortune he had legally inherited from his parents he founded five canonical prebends at the diocese of Skara and provided them with sufficient means and support.
  • 5. He was satisfied with what was necessary for his position and used the rest of his inheritance and other legal income for pious purposes, even so far that he meliorated and augmented the episcopal revenue and several poor prebends at the diocese of Skara.
  • 6. As a good shepherd he issued precepts to make his clergy and people more solicitous for the divine offices and reformed the diocese by ordinations and statutes by which it is still governed.
  • 7. To avoid the devil’s temptations i.e. idleness and voluptuousness, he divided his time laudably devoting it to prayers and contemplations, to authoring chants and histories on the Crown of Thorns in praise and reverence for a spine of the Lord’s crown, sent to him by the king of Norway, on the Holy Virgin, on Saint Eskil the martyr, on Saint Helena the martyr, by visiting his diocese and personally performing the office of preacher, by mercifully providing for the needs of the poor, foreigners and his household, and by repairing the buildings of his church.
  • 8. He had a wonderful patience. Having been intoxicated in his childhood, he always suffered from stomach worms, but patiently endured these pains.
  • 9. He was so burning with charity that he with his prayers reconciled the nurse, who had intoxicated him in his childhood and in a similar way killed his sister, with his parents, and later, as bishop, honestly provided her with living and clothing.
  • 10. He was so humble and pious, that several times, when he had invited rich and powerful people, relatives and friends to his dinner, he withdrew from them, enclosed himself with poor people in another house and had food carried to them.
  • 11. He was so assiduous in fasting, that he fasted each Friday and several other days each year with bread and water, ant nevertheless had food prepared for him to conceal his fasting.
  • 12. He mortified his body, not only with vigils, fasting, prayers, studies and coarse clothing, but also girdled his body, arms and legs with knotty strings of rough animal’s hair.
  • 13. He rightfully and diligently defended the rights, possessions, liberties and privileges of the Skara church, against the frights and threats of the powerful, suffering great persecutions.
  • 14. God’s immense goodness performed several miracles already in his lifetime. Once, when fasting excessively, he ordered water to be brought to him from the well of the Franciscans of Skara, but three times found it to be wine.
  • 15. A nobleman came to dine with the bishop, who ordered him to eat meat, giving him dispensation. But the man didn’t trust the dispensation and didn’t obey, and when he afterwards rode over a field and saw the carcass of a dead horse being devoured by dogs, he descended his horse and insane together with the unclean dogs eagerly devoured the flesh of this most dirty carcass. His servants brought him back to the bishop who restored him to his former health.
  • 16. An official of the bishop had been mortally injured by his enemies and died without confession and other sacraments. The bishop went to his body, revived him, heard his confession and absolved him, after which he returned to his bier, lay down and commended his soul to God.
  • 17. Knight Törner Cryda, the bishop’s maternal uncle, had been excommunicated by him, and therefore behaved violently towards his servants, attacking them with an armed force, and was killed by them and torn to pieces. The bishop went to his body, had the collected limbs brought to Varnhem convent, where he went alone into the church and made the dead man stand up. The man confessed his sins, was absolved and lay down on his bier, free from the danger of eternal perdition.
  • 18. He procured by his prayers that a blind young man recovered his sight.
  • 19. His foolish contemporaries didn’t care to write down many memorable facts on Brynolf’s virtues and merits, which were well-known and famous, but the wartime since more than 50 years has disturbed men’s minds and prevented a proper investigation of these things.
  • 20. In the year 1317, the day of the holy virgin Dorothea, i.e. February 6, blessed Brynolf passed away.


4. 25 articles on his miracles after death [VITA 1876:143-145].
  • 1. Woman, blind for 3 years;
  • 2. Man, out of his wits for 6 weeks;
  • 3. Man, insane for 18 months;
  • 4. Woman, tumor in tongue;
  • 5. Young woman, insane on her wedding-day;
  • 6. Young woman, possessed by devil;
  • 7. Young boy, crippled;
  • 8. 3-year-old son of nobleman, lame feet;
  • 9. 4-year-old girl, lame legs;
  • 10. Smith, serious leprosy;
  • 11. Burgher at Skara, became blind when he tried to diminish the income of the Skara church;
  • 12. Woman, mute and senseless after illness;
  • 13. Ship with 65 passengers in peril on lake Vättern;
  • 14. 4-year-old boy, lame and mute;
  • 15. 4-year-old girl, lame legs;
  • 16. Painter, Lödöse town, leg illness;
  • 17. Horse-driver, lame, relapsed when failed to fulfil vow;
  • 18. Bishop’s merchant in peril at sea;
  • 19. Man, deaf;
  • 20. 18-month-old boy, leg atrophy;
  • 21. Lambert, canon at Skara, serious headache and deafness;
  • 22. Small boy, crippled foot;
  • 23. Woman, swollen legs;
  • 24. Young boy, mute;
  • 25. Stillborn child.


5. Six articles with instructions for the interrogation of witnesses. [VITA 1876:145].
6. Summons, issued Skara Sunday April 18, 1417, for the hearings, which are to begin the day after [i.e. Monday, April 19]. [VITA 1876:145-146].
7. Hearings at Skara.

Minutes of the hearings at Skara, beginning April 12 [there is evidently some mistake in the dating, this should be 19] -25 [should be 22], 1417, with the hearing of 12 witnesses on the 20 articles on the bishop’s life, with some additional miracles in vita. [VITA 1876:147-167].

Witnesses: 1) Gustav Magnusson, knight, councillor and chief judge; 2) Nils Guttormsson, knight, castellan, telling story of how Brynolf’s father Algot criticized him for greed during famine; additional details on article 17; miracle with the Växjö bishop’s horse; 3) Arvid Jonsson, knight, his wife was miraculously saved after perilous childbirth; 4) Johan Larsson, councillor of Skara town; miracle with a squire having been lame; 5) Brynolf, present bishop of Skara, many additionl details on the meter of Brynolf’s poetry and several other articles; 6) Torkel, cathedral dean of Skara; attested article 15 on the case of meat insanity, which he (as also the bishop) had heard from bishop Knut Bosson, whose grandfather had been with bishop Brynolf; 7) Karl Oddsson, dean of Skara; 8) Björn Knap, canon of Skara; 9) Sven Johansson, canon of Skara; 10) Lambert Benekason, canon of Skara; 11) Herman Nilsson, guardian of the Franciscan convent; details on article 14, the water miracle ; 12) Johan Bergthorsson, vicar at Råda parish; details on article 17;


8.Hearings on the 25 miracles.

Hearings on the 25 miracles, April 13 [should be 20?] – April 22. [VITA 1876:167-175].In a few cases, miracle-collecting by canons, commissioned by bishop Brynolf II Karlsson, is mentioned [e.g. VITA 1876 p. 171].


9. Summons for anyone to protest against the above hearings, April 22. [VITA 1876:175-176].
10. Publication of hearings as no protests appeared, April 25. [VITA 1876:176].
11. Proceedings at Vadstena 28 April.

Confessor general Ericus Johannis displayed St Birgitta’s Revelations II:30 and the canonization acts, where the testimony by Alvastra prior Petrus Olaui includes a revelation (Extrav. 108) said to refer to bishop Brynolf. Another three monks and four nuns give testimony on this matter. The nuns give supplementary testimonies on the bishop’s miracles in vita. [VITA 1876:176-180].


12. Another seven miracles.
  • 1. Vicar’s servant, epileptic fit;
  • 2. Lödöse burger, sick horse at sea;
  • 3. 3-year-old boy fell from a beam while catching a tame jackdaw;
  • 4. Same burgher losing his purse and seal;
  • 5. Half-year-old boy unable to suck;
  • 6. 6-year-old girl, serious interior disease;
  • 7. 50-year-old man lost all his strength. [VITA 1876:180-181].


13. Final declaration of the commissaries dated Vadstena, April 28, 1417.

The lack of testimonies is attributed to the Black Death 1350 and to the present occupation with taxpaying, military service and agriculture. [VITA 1876:181].


14. Certificates by four imperial notaries.

Certificates by four imperial notaries, Petrus Holmstani, Henichinus Rawaldi and Laurentius Finvidi, all three from Linköping, Johannes Skutea from Hildesheim; Henichinus and Laurentius had been the actual scribes. [VITA 1876:181-183].

15. Bull by the pope Martin V.

Finally a bull by the newly elected pope Martin V, (formerly member of the commission of April 27, 1416, under the name Oddo Colonna) dated Konstanz May 7, 1418, confirming the original council bull, but with no indication than any reports have been received or that the case has advanced in any other way. [VITA 1876:183-185].


Composition and style

With the nature of the text follows that it combines legal and devotional stylistic features with those of popular narrative seen in the mirror of clerical miracle recorders. Repetitive and formulaic legal language, aiming at precision, dominates greatly. In the print, there are a good number of scribal and print errors, corrected in the edition. We find common medievisms like ipsum for eum “him”, huiusmodi for huius “of this” [genitive], prout asseruit et apparebat “as he asserted and as it appeared…” (VITA 1876:149, coordination of different tenses), variation: suo quo supra medio iuramento – in virtute per eum prestiti iuramenti “by his oath”. Structure of sentences is often rather complicated with subordinated relative clauses rather than paratactic narrative. In some cases parataxis is actually used, with variation of tenses and much praesens historicum: … dum sedere videbatur, subito oculos girare cepit, os deflectitur, oculi vertuntur, spumat, sanguis effluit, adeo quod mortua reputatur, sanctorum patrocinia implorantur, nec adest remedium, tandem respirare cepit … “while she was seen to be seated, suddenly she began to turn around her eyes, her mouth is bent aside, her eyes are turned, she foams, blood flows forth, so that she is thought to be dead, help from the saints is called upon, but no remedy is there, finally she began to breathe …” (VITA 1876:180). Gemination: Morcellum seu bolum “mouthful”. Unusual words: occiput “back part of head”, found vith Persius, Ausonius, Sidonius, reveals a tendency to display erudition. [Further examples at end].

Sources

Fröjmark (1995, 2004) has discussed the traditions of the Skara chapter and the Franciscan convent. Leading tradition-provider would seem to have been bishop Brynolf II Karlsson who initiated documentation of miracles by sending out clerics into his diocese soon after his accession 1404 (Fröjmark 1995 p. 143). Evidence for miracle-recording is mentioned frequently in the hearings. Traditions on Brynolf’s miracles in vita had been preserved among other Skara clerics also, among clerics and laymen elsewhere (bishop Knut Bosson), among the Skara Franciscans (water miracle) and at Vadstena (FRÖJMARK 1995:140, 2004:93-94).

Purpose and audience

The report of the three bishops of April 28, 1417, was adressed to the council of Konstanz, to the pope and his “collegium sacrum”. At that date there was no generally recognized pope; Benedict XIII (Pedro de Luna) was to be deposed July 26, Martin V (Odo Colonna) was elected November 11, 1417. The principal audience would have been the abovementioned commission including Jean Gerson and Odo Colonna which had been appointed, probably in 1415, for the inquiry into the several Nordic canonization proposals. Nothing is known how the report was received, except that pope Martin V renewed the commission in 1418. The purpose of the actual printed report is likewise unclear. It has been conjectured that it was printed in connection with Brynolf’s translation, which occurred, with pope Innocentius VIII:s consent, on August 16, 1492 according to the Vadstena Diary. [COLLIJN 1934-38 p. 116]. There are, however, later papal documents on this matter, which has led some to question the date, but then Brynolf is mentioned in connection with other cases: Nils Hermansson, Ingrid of Skänninge, Hemming, bishop of Åbo, whose translations took place during the years 1507-1515. And the final purpose of canonization was still kept in sight. [PERNLER 2004:72-73]. So the print would probably have been a component in this process.


Medieval reception and transmission

The proceedings were printed in Lübeck by Bartholomaeus Ghotan, probably 1492 as said above. This is the only Swedish canonization process preserved in print. On the other hand, no manuscript is preserved (FRÖJMARK 1995:137, 2004:88). Two copies of the print have been preserved, one in the Royal Library (provenance Sparwenfeld-Gyllengrip-Rålamb), one in Uppsala (provenance Stiernman-Celsius). According to Örnhjälm’s introduction to his Svecia Sancta, [Historia Sancta?] (Cod. Ups. E.206), there existed a third and perhaps a fourth copy, one in the College of Antiquities (listed in the inventory of 1693, Cod. Holm. U.90:1, fol. 11r, entry 46), one in the possession of Magnus Gabriel de la Gardie. [Collijn 1934-38, p. 117]. As said above, the Breviarium Scarense, printed 1498, contains an office based on the articles of the process.


Vita Suecica beati Brynolphi

Essentials

The Old Swedish Brynolphus legend, composed by the Vadstena monk Torkil Elavsson (d. 1513), is even more dependent on the process articles (FRÖJMARK 1995:144-146, 2004:100). It is preserved in a fragmentary Linköping codex and in a copy by Örnhjälm in his Svecia Sancta. It was edited by Leonard Fredrik RÄÄF 1821 from the former and by Johan Henrik SCHRÖDER 1836 from the latter manuscript. The former fragment covers articles 7-20 and the first miracle, the latter edition contains articles 1-20.

Editions

  • GEETE 1903 p. 67, nr 168.
  • RÄÄF 1821
  • SCHRÖDER 1836

Incipit

Inc. (1836 edition): Haer börjas thaes haelga herrans, Sancti Bryniolffi liffwerne, som Biscop war j Skarom, och war k. Fadher Herr Thorchil haffwer waendt aff Latino. Thaessins haelga herrans, Biscop Bryniolffi liffwerne war mykit haeligt oc gudelikt: han war födder af waelburnom oc maechtugaste Slaechte j Sverigis rijke, oc han hade XI. brödher, waelburna Riddara os mykit maechtuga …

Explicit

Expl.: Thaektis gudi kalla honom aff thaesse waerld Aarom aeptir gudz byrdh tvsanda, thry hundrad, oc wppa siwttande, wppa sancta dorothee dagh, som aer siaette daghin j februarij, aff laeggiandis sins krops byrdhe fullir mz allom godom gaerningom, hviltis han j warom herra iesu christo, hwilkins siael nu glaedz mz gudhi, oc hans haelga mannom aewaerdelika.

Artistic representations

There are a number of artistic representations of bishop Brynolf, with references to his miracles in vita. Painting: Fryksände church, Värmland, triptych, ca 1500. Sculptures: Visnum church, Värmland, triptych, 1525. Gräsmark church, Värmland, triptych, now SHM. Önum church, Västergötland, triptych, ca 1500. Ornunga church, Västergötland, sculpture from a triptych, 1525, now Göteborgs stadsmuseum. Kullings-Skövde church, Västergötland, triptych, beginning of 16th c., now Göteborgs stadsmuseum. Pilgrim’s badges, casts attached to church bells: Lindärva church, Västergötland, 1512, Gjerde church, Hordaland, Norway, beginning of 16th c. Iconograpy is the same in all cases: Brynolf is depicted standing with mitre and chasuble, on his right a kneeling man with a cup, at his feet two reclining men, alluding to the water miracle and to his resuscitation of two men who had been killed without absolution, i.e. articles 14, 16 and 17 from his vita.

  • SIGSJÖ 2004
  • LUNDÉN 1946:3


Officium “Brinolphi patris merita”

Brynolf office in the Breviarium Scarense 128r-131r. LUNDÉN 1946 s. 24-35.

Missa

Introitus. Gaudeamus omnes in Domino … [Eccli. 45:3]. Magnificavit. … vel Statuit.

Collecta. Deus, tuorum Gloria sacerdotum, presta, quesumus, ut qui beati Brinnolphi confessoris tui atque pontificis merita preclara recolimus, per eius vestigial ad celestis patrie pascua perseveranter gradiamur. Per Dominum.

[Lectio]. Epistola Ecce sacerdos magnus. [Eccli. 44:16-27; 45:3-20.]

Require de vno confessore pontifice Graduale Inveni David. [Ps. 8:21-23].

Require ibidem Alleluia.

Versus. O Brinnolphe lux pastorum / gemma fulgens confessorum / florens in virtutibus. Nos a culpis emundatos / et in bono confirmatos / coniunge celestibus.

Sequentia Pastor bone Iesu Christe / … / gratiarum omnium. Amen. [Evangelium]. Secundum Lucam xij. In illo tempore. Dixit Iesus discipulis suis. Sint lumbi vestri precincti et lucerne ardentes in manibus vestris … filius hominis veniet. [Luc. 12:35-40].

Offertorium. Iustus vt palma florebit sicut cedrus qui in Libano est multiplicabitur. [Ps. 91:13].

Secreta. Quesumus, omnipotens Deus, vt beati Brinnolphi confessoris fui atque pontificis ad meliorem vitam exempla nos prouocet

Communio. Domine quinque talenta tradidisti mihi … [Matth. 25:20].

Complenda. Sumentes, Domine, dona celestia suppliciter deprecamur, vt que sedula seruitute donante te gerimus, intercedente beato Brinnolpho confessore tuo atque pontifice dignis sensibus tuo munere capiamus. Per Dominum.


BREVIARIUM SCARENSE, bl. 266aβ – 267aα. Also in codices Upsalenses C.420, C.427 (missalia Lincopensia) and C.455 (Vadstena).

LUNDÉN 1946:1 p. 35-37.

Possibly authored (as well as the office) by Brynolf Gerlaksson, bishop of Skara 1478-1505 (PERNLER 2004 p. 73).

Other liturgical occurrences

Breviarium Upsalense 1496

Commemoratio of Brynolf in the calendar for August 17 (bl. 10b): Bryniolphi episcopi et confessoris commemoratio Festum Patronorum Sueciae (July 10-16): a lectio on Brynolf is added to the legend of the octave: Gloriosos autem patronos nostros, quorum superius expressa sunt nomina, vnacum beato Brynniolpho Vesgothorum episcopo … (bl. 314bβ. Edited: LUNDÉN 1952 p. 146, see also HELANDER 1989, p. 116, 118, 143.) Brynolf is included in the All Saints litany (bl. 70b)

Breviarium Arosiense 1513 (COLLIJN 1934-38, p. 221-226). Included in litany (bl. 240aβ)

Horae de domina … Lincopensis et Scarensis 1495 Included in litany (manuscript addition, COLLIJN 1934-38, p. 137),

Horae de domina … Lincopensis et Scarensis, second edition, Leipzig 1514 (COLLIJN 1934-38, p. 242-245), Included in litany (fol. 48-51) Included in calendar,February 6 (bl. 2b): Brunolphi episcopi Scarensis et do[?] simplex.

Horae de domina … Upsalensem, Uppsala 1525 (COLLIJN 1934-38, p. 300-305). Included in litany, bl. 73a.

  • PERNLER 2004:74
  • LUNDÉN 1946:1 p. 38

Bibliography

  • BIRGITTA, Revelationes.
  • BISKOPEN OCH TÖRNTAGGEN 2004 Biskopen och törntaggen. Red.: Johnny Hagberg. Skara 2004. (Skara stiftshistoriska sällskaps skriftserie. 15.)
  • BLOMGREN 1998 Den helige biskop Brynolfs av Skara levnad jämte hans kanonisationsprocess. Översatt från latinet av Sven Blomgren. Skara : Föreningen för Västgötalitteratur, 1998.
  • BREVIARIUM SCARENSE 1498, Norimberge: Georg Stuchs. 24.4. 1498..
  • BREVIARIUM UPSALENSE 1496 Stockholm : Johannes Fabri & widow, 30.9. 1496.
  • BRYNOLF ALGOTSSON 1995 Brynolf Algotsson - scenen, mannen, rollen. Red.: Karl-Erik Tysk. - Skara, 1995. (Acta Bibliothecae Scarensis ; 7). - Med en utförlig bibliografi sid. 150-157.
  • BÄÄRNHIELM 1994 Myrdal, Janken & Bäärnhielm, Göran: Kvinnor, barn och, fester i medeltida mirakelberättelser. (Skrifter från Skaraborgs länsmuseum. 19.) 1994, sid. 157-196.
  • BÄÄRNHIELM 2004 Myrdal, Janken & Bäärnhielm, Göran: ”Miracles and medieval life. Canonization proceedings as a source for medieval social history”. Pp 101-116. In: Procès de canonisation au Moyen Âge : aspects juridiques et religieux = Medieval canonization processes : legal and religious aspects / sous la direction de Gábor Klaniczay. - Roma : Ecole française de Rome, 2004. - 392 s., 16 pl.-s. (Collection de l'Ecole française de Rome, , ISSN 0223-5099 ; 340). - ISBN: 2-7283-0723-7
  • COLLIJN 1934-38 Collijn, Isak: Sveriges bibliografi intill år 1600. Band 1. 1478-1530. 1934-38. sid. 169-175.
  • FRÖJMARK 1992 Fröjmark, Anders, Mirakler och helgonkult. Linköpings biskopsdöme under senmedeltiden. Uppsala 1992.
  • FRÖJMARK 1995 Fröjmark, Anders: Brynolf Algotssons kanonisationsprocess. In: Brynolf Algotsson - scenen, mannen, rollen. 1995, sid. 137-149.
  • FRÖJMARK 1996 Fröjmark, Anders & Carlé, Birte ”Danemark - Suède – Finlande”. In: Hagiographies : histoire internationale de la littérature hagiographique latine et vernaculaire en Occident des origines à 1550. Vol. 2. Turnhout, 1996 pp. 501-545.
  • FRÖJMARK 2004 ”The canonization process of Brynolf Algotsson”. Pp. 87-100. In: Procès de canonisation au Moyen Âge : aspects juridiques et religieux = Medieval canonization processes : legal and religious aspects / sous la direction de Gábor Klaniczay. - Roma : Ecole française de Rome, 2004. - 392 s., 16 pl.-s. (Collection de l'Ecole française de Rome, , ISSN 0223-5099 ; 340). - ISBN: 2-7283-0723-7
  • HELANDER 1989 Helander, Sven, Ansgarskulten i Norden. Stockholm, 1989 (Bibliotheca theologiae practicae ; 45).
  • KRÖTZL 1994 Christian Krötzl, 1994: Pilger, Mirakel und Alltag : Formen des Verhaltens im skandinavischen Mittelalter (12.-15. Jahrhundert). Helsinki : SHS, 1994
  • LOSMAN 1970 Losman, Beata: Norden och, reformkonsilierna 1408-1449. (Studia historica Gothoburgensia. 11.) 1970.
  • LUNDÉN 1945 Lundén, Tryggve: Sankt Brynolf, biskop av Skara. 1. Hans liv och författarskap. I: Credo 26, 1945, sid. 183-215.
  • LUNDÉN 1946:1 Lundén, Tryggve: Sankt Brynolf, biskop av Skara. 2. Hans eftermäle. I: Credo 27, 1946, sid. 14-39.
  • LUNDÉN 1946:2 Lundén, Tryggve: Brynolf Algotssons samlade diktverk. Med översättning av Tryggve Lundén. I: Credo 27, 1946, sid. 73-124.
  • LUNDÉN 1946:3 Lundén, Tryggve: Sankt Brynolfs ikonografi. 1. Bilder i grafik, målning och skulptur. I: Fornvännen,. Årg. 41(1946), sid. 174-182.
  • LUNDÉN 1952 Lundén, Tryggve: Officiet för Sveriges skyddshelgons fest. I: Credo 33, 1952, s. 127-147.
  • MANSI Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio / J. D. Mansi. 1-55. – Paris & Lepizig 1901-1927 (Florentiae ; Venetiis, 1758-1798)
  • MYRDAL 1994 Myrdal, Janken & Bäärnhielm, Göran: Kvinnor, barn och, fester i medeltida mirakelberättelser. (Skrifter från Skaraborgs länsmuseum. 19.) 1994, sid. 157-196.
  • SCHRÖDER 1836 Vita S. Brynolphi svethice ex apographo Örnhjelmiano Bibliothecae R. Acad. : Upsal. aucta et illustrata. Uppsala 1836.
  • SIGSJÖ 2004 Sigsjö, Ragnar: ”Brynolfsbilder”. In: Biskopen och törntaggen. 2004, sid. 171-178.
  • VITA 1492 Vita Beati Brynolphi condam episcopi Scarensis in regno Swecie vna cum miraculis et attestationibus pro eiusdem canonizatione factis. Lübeck : Bartholomaeus Ghotan,[1492?].
  • VITA 1870 Photolitographic facsimile of the 1492 print issued in 85 copies by G. E. Klemming 1870, with an introduction of 5 pages.
  • VITA 1876 Vita S. Brynolphi episcopi Scarensis cum processu eius canonizationis. Ed. et illustravit Claudius Annerstedt. In: Scriptores rerum, Svecicarum medii aevi. T. III:2. 1876, p. 138-145.
  • ÖBERG 2004 Fredrik Öberg, Den liturgiska Brynolfsbilden. In: Biskopen och törntaggen. Skara 2004, p. 149-170.

Examples

Cum quidam miles, Tornerus Cryda nuncupatus, avunculus beati Brynolphi, propter excessus suos ab eodem episcopo excommunicatus, occasione huiusmodi excommunicationis in eum iuste late familiaribus dicti episcopi Brynolphi multas violentias et damna fecisset, et tandem armata manu et hostili adeo eos quos fugere non valerent inuasisset, idem familiares vim vi repellendo eundem militem interfecerunt et amaricati de iniuria eis illata, ipsum membratim dilaniauerunt. Quod audiens predictus beatus Brynolphus ac cupiens animam ipsius interfecti a peccato mortali improuise decedentis saluam fieri, ad funus eiusdem accessit, et membra collecta ad claustrum Warnheim portari fecit, vbi solus intrans ecclesiam, per suas orationes a deo impetrauit, vt defunctus ille surgeret. Qui surgens procidit ante pedes dicti episcopi, peccata sua ipsi confessus fuit factaque confessione et absolutione ab ipso beato Brynolpho recepta, se ad feretrum reposuit a perditionis eterne periculo, vt pie creditur, liberatus.” VITA 1876, p. 143.

(Törner Cryda, a knight and maternal uncle of the bishop, had been excommunicated by him for some misdeeds, and therefore violently persecuted his followers. One day he attacked them with armed force so that they could not escape, but they replied with violence, killed the knight and tore his body into pieces, furious over the damage he had inflicted upon them. Blessed Brynolf heard this and wanted to save the killed man’s soul from deadly sin as he had died unexpectedly, went to his body, collected his limbs and had them transported to the Varnhem monastery, where he alone went into the church and by his prayers obtained from God that the deceased man stood up. He fell to the bishop’s feet, confessed his sins, received absolution by blessed Brynolf and lay back on the bier liberated, as we piously believe, from the peril of eternal perdition.)


”[…] funus eiusdem Torneri militis tunc locatum erat illa nocte in parochiali ecclesia Scadarik ipsius monasterii in Varnhem, Scarensis dyocesis, et mane facto, immediate post huiusmodi per ipsum peractum miraculum, inquisiuit idem beatus Brynolphus a ministris suis, quisnam esset vel fuisset ille curiosus inuestigator, qui ad fenestram ascendere et illa nocte introspicere presumebat, comminando sibi indignationem et licentiam, nisi id quod viderat tamquam thesaurum diligentissime abscondendum quo ad viueret nulli penitus viuentium reuelaret, quem cum reperisset, a se licentiauit et a seruicio suo dimisit […].” VITA 1876, p. 151.

(The corpse of knight Törner lay during the night in the Skarke parish church at Varnhem monastery. In the morning after the miracle, blessed Brynolf asked his servants who the curious onlooker was who had dared to climb up to the window and look in during the night. He threatened the perpetrator with his wrath and dismissal, if he did not, as long as he lived, revealed it to absolutely nobody living, concealing it carefully like a treasure, and when he found him, he dismissed him from his service.)


”[…] cum beatus pater Brynolphus inquireret de curioso illo famulo qui eius facta sciscitatus fuerat et mandatum transgredi presumebat, nec inuenire poterat, cepit palpare pedes singulorum puerorum suorum secum in cubiculo dormientium, et reperiens pedes vnius aliorum pedibus frigiores, ipsum transgressorem sui mandati deprehendit et conuicit: cui hoc confesso iniunxit sub pena corporali lepre, ne cuiquam, quoad viueret ipse dominus Episcopus Brynolphus, illud miraculum, quod sic per eum fieri viderat, reuelaret, et ex post eum a suo seruicio licentiatum abire fecit. Dictus autem familiaris iniunctum sibi secretum paruipendens, eo reuelato, morbo lepre grauiter est percussusIdem testis loquens dixit se pro vero vt verum audiuisse a quodam presbitero satis annoso, qui dixit se ab eodem leproso in confessione et alias pluries audiuisse. Interrogatus de loco et tempore dixit, quod in Smaalandia, Lincopensis dyocesis, ante multos annos, dum scolaris erat, hoc audiuit.” VITA 1876, p. 167.

(When blessed father Brynolf asked for the curious servant who had investigated his actions and violated his orders but could not find him, he began to touch the feet of those who had slept with him in the chamber, and when he found one who had colder feet than the others, he caught him and convicted his as the violator of his orders: he imposed on him, by corporal punishment of being struck by leprosy, never to disclose to anybody the miracle, that he had seen the bishop perform, as long as the bishop lived, and then he dismissed him from his service. However, the servant thought little of the secret, but disclosed it and was severely hit by leprosy. The witness [a parish priest] had heard this many years ago as a schoolboy in Småland, Linköping diocese, from an old priest who had heard this from the leper himself in confession …)

Lord Bo Hätta, bishop of Växjö, visited the venerable father Brynolf, bishop of Skara, for recreation or some other reason, and found him at his manor Läckö. Lord Brynolf asked him to sell his riding-horse for a good price, but he refused. Venerable father Brynolf asked him a second time to sell him the horse on the same conditions, “In any case the lord of Växjö would not bring the horse with him back to his own diocese.” The bishop of Växjö counted this as nothing and ridiculous, but but when the same day’s evening hour had entered, almost close to the night, the horse with his scratching tail easily lifted away the beam closing the stable door and walked out into the fields. The wolves soon attacked it with much howling. The bishops heard this, and lord Brynolf of Skara said to the lord from Växjö: “Listen my brother and lord, they are singing the vigil for the soul of your horse.” They sent out servants to find out the truth and they found the horse killed by the wolves as the lord of Skara had prophetically predicted to the lord of Växjö.

”[…] cum dominus Boecius dictus Haetta, tunc episcopus Vexoniensis, refocillacionis gratia seu alia de causa dictum venerabilem patrem dominum Brynolphum episcopum Scarensem visitasset et ipsum in manerio suo Lekkia vulgariter nuncupato personaliter reperisset, idem dominus Brynolphus inter alia peciit ab eodem domino Boecio Vexoniensi, quod sibi gradarium suum dimitteret pro pecio competenti; quo simpliciter negante, instabat iterum venerabilis pater Brynolphus Scarensis prout antea fecerat, quod dictum gradarium sibi modo et conditione premissis dimitteret, alioquin ipsum gradarium idem dominus Vexoniensis secum ad propriam dyocesin minime reportaret. Ipso autem Vexoniensi hoc pro nichilo et ridiculo reputante, iam cum eiusdem diei hora vespertina quasi nocti vicina subintrasset, dictus gradarius in stabulo locatus per caudam prurientem obicem, quo obseratum erat ostium stabuli faciliter et casualiter amouit, et inde exiens venit in campum, cui mox lupi aderant vociferantes et varios ac magnos ululatus emittentes, quibus quidem ululatibus per dictos dominos Episcopos auditis et perceptis, dixit dominus Brynolphus Scarensis prefatus prelibato domino Vexoniensi: “Ecce frater et Domine mi, isti cantant vigilias pro anima equi tui.” Cum autem ad inquirendum veritatem super hoc famulos emisissent, ipsum equum sive gradarium a lupis prostratum et mortuum, prout idem dominus Scarensis dicto domino Vexoniensi, quasi spiritu prophetico predixerat, inuenerunt […].” VITA 1876, p. 151.


Item quod anno domini MCDXII quedam virgo, filia cuiusdam Turgilli in Torbiornetorp, Scarensis dyocesis adeo furiosa, quod per campos et deuia siluarum, quasi indomita bestia discurreret, ad sepulchrum beati Brynolphi per parentes suos ducta et inuocata ope ipsius subito sanabatur […].” VITA 1876, p. 143.

In 1412 a certain maiden, daughter of Tyrgils in Torbjörntorp, Skara diocese, was so mad that she run around like a wild animal in the fields and forest wilds. She was brought by her parents to blessed Brynolf’s tomb and after invocation of his help she quickly regained health...

Prouidus vir Gunnarus Nicolai de Restwabergh, parochie Marka, Scarensis dyocesis, maritus eiusdem puelle et principaliter in dicto articulo nominate, Gunnor nomine, etatis XXX annorum vt dixit, productus, iuratus et interrogatus, suo medio iuramento dixit, contenta in dicto articulo fore vera, causam reddens scientie sui dicti, quia ipsa Gunnor vxor sua laborauit in amentia per lucida interualla vltra annum et ante carnalem inter eos copulam subsecutam, quodque eam idem testis loquens, cum certis sibi associatis viris die nuptiarum recepit eam de campo et reduxit eam in domum domini Torkilli prepositi Scarensis, eo quod coloni sui essent. ...Item super eodem articulo venerabilis et circumspectus vir dominus Torkillus prepositus Scarensis testis productus, iuratus et interrogatur dixit, contenta in dicto articulo fore vera, quia sic ea fieri vidit et audiuit. Vidit namque eam sanam ad mensam suam locari, eamque super eandem mensam subito salire et ad campos euadere. Vidit eam ad sepulchrum beati Brynolphi adduci debilem et dementem, et inde sanam et incolumem reduci, ac ab eodem teste loquente sibi alimenta ministrari petentem.” Scriptores rerum Svecicarum medii aevi, 3:2, cit., p. 168-169.

Prudent man Gunnar Nilsson from Redberga, Marka parish, Skara diocese, husband of the girl Gunvor, who is named in the article, 30 years old, was brought forward, sworn and interrogated and said under oath, that the content of the article was true, and gave as reason of his knowledge, that his wife Gunvor struggled in insanity with clear intevals for more than one year before their carnal connection was completed, and that he with some other men on the marriage day had taken her from the field and brought her back to the house of Torkel, provost of Skara, because they were his tenants… Lord Torkel, provost of Skara … said the contents of the article was true, because he did see and hear it happen thus. He saw her healthy take her seat at his table, suddenly leap over the table and run out into the fields. He saw her be brought weak and insane to the tomb of blessed Brynolf and be brought back healthy and sound, and she asked him, the witness, to give her food. VITA 1876, p. 168-169.