Monte Carlo Simulations

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Monte Carlo simulations for medical applications

The purpose of this wiki is to help students and employees at the University of Bergen and collaborator to get started with Monte Carlo simulations with FLUKA and GEANT4. The page will contain information on Monte Carlo simulations with FLUKA and GEANT4 for medical applications.


Relative distribution of neutron dose on the surface and inside water phantoms irradiated with a 3 x 3 cm2 photon field in the 15 MV energy mode (right) and a carbon ion irradiation of a 3 x 3 x 3 cm3 target volume (left). The radiation fields enter the center of the cube from above.

FLUKA basics

FLUKA is a general purpose Monte Carlo particle transport code covering a wide range of applications including basic research in high energy physics, radiation protection, dosimetry and a number of other applications. The use of FLUKA in Monte Carlo simulations related to radiation therapy, including protons and carbon ions, has previously been evaluated.

In order to download and install FLUKA you need to register as a user on the official FLUKA web-page. The web-site also contains a lot of useful information including lectures and exercises from FLUKA courses.

Information on installation, creating and running simulations can be found at the dedicated FLUKA page of this wiki.


Flair is an advanced user friendly interface for FLUKA to facilitate the editing of FLUKA input files, execution of the code and visualization of the output files. It is based entirely on python and Tkinter. Information on Flair can be found here and downloads are available at the official Flair web-page.

FLUKA scripting tools

Since Flair is based on the programming language Python, it is easy to add scripts using the Python interfaced specified in Flair. Some tools are specified on the FLUKA tools page.


Geant4 is a toolkit for the simulation of the passage of particles through matter. Its areas of application include high energy, nuclear and accelerator physics, as well as studies in medical and space science. The two main reference papers for Geant4 are published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research (A 506 (2003) 250-303), and IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (53 No. 1 (2006) 270-278).


FLUKA wiki page (a subpage of this wiki)

The official FLUKA web-page

GEANT4 wiki page(a subpage of this wiki)

The official GEANT4 web-page